Saturday, November 6, 2010

Late 19th to mid 20th Century US history key terms (1800s - 1900s)

A. Philip Randolph – president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, primarily black union, pushed for integration of companies receiving defense contracts during WWII; Roosevelt established FEPC because of this (Fair Employment Practices Commission
“Boss Tweed” – infamously corrupt politician; many publicly funded projects, paid kickbacks to friends…ex. $500 for hammer, $40 toothbrush…
14th amendment – definition of citizenship, refused to let confederate states that didn’t ratify it be readmitted,
A. Mitchell Palmer – attorney general – raided radical centers and arrested more than 6000, deported 500, part of red scare
Anti-imperialist league – established to fight annexation of Philippines by sugar farmers and upper eastern statesmen
beatniks – group of young poets, writers and artists who wrote harsh critiques of the sterility and conformity of American life, politics and pop culture; symbol of the restlessness of young Americans during 1950s; rebellion culture; James Dean was the icon of beat culture – then died at age 24 as result of his lifestyle
Bessemer process - The Bessemer process allowed ironists to create a stronger and more reliable form of steel.  The better steel gained a high demand, and a complex transportation system was created to ship it around the growing national economy.  Not only did the new railroad industry need the steel industry, but the steel industry needed the railroads as well.  And the railroads and steel factories needed proper lubrication, which fired the need for oil.  Although petroleum had been discovered in the northern US, its usefulness didn’t begin to be apparent until the steel industry took off.  From this, paraffin, naphtha, kerosene, lubricating oil, and eventually gasoline all were discovered.
Betty Friedan – writer of the Feminine Mystique about housewives in suburbs feeling depressed due to lack of expression in any way, living boring useless lives; gave feminist movement a voice
black codes – southern states made laws known as black codes, authorized officials could arrest unemployed blacks, fine them, and hire them to privated employers to satisfy the fine, blacks not allowed to own or lease farms or have job besides plantation worker, civil rights act made black codes unconstitutional.
bonus army – payment of $1000 bonus to all WWI vets by congress beginning in 1945; wanted it earlier; protest in 1932 – wanted it now, camped out around DC; was clearly peaceful; Hoover ordered MacArthur to stop protest; 100 injured by machine guns and cavalry; ended any hope in Hoover to stop depression
Booker T. Washington – black spokesperson for education, self-improvement, learn industrial trades not classical schooling, improve dress, personal cleanliness; adopt white middle class standards
Brown vs. Board of Education – rejected Plessy vs. Ferguson; says ‘separate but equal’ has no place in American society; forces desegregation of schools
Chinese exclusion act – Chinese took low wages and hurt unions, banned Chinese immigration, kept them from becoming citizens
Christian Coalition – group of born-again Christians who opposed abortion, divorce, feminism and homosexuality, wanted schools to teach Creation; goal was to have Christian values once again dominate American life
CIO – Congress of Industrial Organizations – union; more receptive to blacks and women than AFL had been; targeted previously unorganized industries; more militant than AFL
Coxey’s Army – advocated inflation and massive public works program to created jobs; organized march of unemployed on Washington
crop-lein – country stores used credit with huge interest rates (50-60%) to keep blacks in debt, poor, used crops as collateral for loan, contributed to decline in southern agricultural economy; cash crops (cotton) exhausted soil, only realistic way to get out of debt
Cross of Gold – William Jennings Bryan delivered speech on free silver, won; populists made progress on getting off gold standard
Cuban Missile Crisis – blockade, panic among American citizens, kennedy arranged with soviets not to invade cuba and they would remove offensive nuclear weapons from cuba
Dawes Severalty Act – provided for the gradual elimination of tribal ownership of land, forced assimilation of Indians into White culture, forced them to become individual land owners (gave them land) and give up the tribes; took many Indian children and put into boarding schools, taught Christianity and how to be white; created Christian churches on reservations
Espionage and Sedition Acts – gave govt new ways to persecute spies, espionage, sabotage or obstruction of war effort
Farmer’s Alliances – created alliances within agriculture market; overall, tried to help farmers get out of debt, let to creation of people’s party/birth of populism
fifteenth amendment – denied govt right to deny citizenship based on race, color or previous condition of servitude
flappers – ‘new era’ – nickname for women with liberated lifestyle, expression in speech, dress, hairstyle, behavior; huge impact on lower-middle-class and working-class single women; went to clubs and dance halls; much more independent women; flappers created National Woman’s Party
Frederick Jackson Turner – historian; ideas on how the expansion on the frontier/westward expansion stimulated individualism, nationalism and democracy.  “passing of the frontier” idea, closing of the first period of American history.  Created romanticism of the west as a place of heroism, triumph and progress
freedmen’s bureau – agency of the army directed by the general; distributed food to millions of former slaves; established schools, staffed by northern churches; not a permanent solution, only operated for one year, too small
George A. Custer – defeated by Sioux Indians at the ‘Battle of Little Bighorn” and was killed, along with every man in his regiment
Ghost Dance – dances done by Paiute Indians, led by prophet Wovoka; mass, emotional dances emphasized coming of a messiah, people had visions of the white man retreating from the plains and buffalo herds restored
Gospel of Wealth – idea that people of great wealth had great power and responsibility to the public; birth of philanthropy; private wealth is a public blessing; Carnegie wrote book The Gospel of Wealth
Great Migration – 1919 – large black communities crowding into northern cities; south – lynchings increase, due to increase in racial crimes; red summer of 1919
Great Society – Johnson created a reform to better American society; increase in federal spending; many programs failed; doubled govt spending; significantly reduced hunger; Medicare aid to millions of elderly citizens; contributed to greatest reduction of poverty in American history
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution – allowed the President to take all necessary measures to protect American forces and prevent further aggression in southeast asia; became an open-ended legal authorization for escalation of the conflict; led US into Vietnam War
Harlem Renaissance – black artists and musicians helped establish a thriving, highly politicized culture rooted in the historical legacy of their race
Haymarket bombing – someone threw a bomb that killed 7 policemen during a strike at Haymarket Square in Chicago, policemen opened fire on crowd, eight anarchists charged with murder; middle America saw it as symbol of social chaos and radicalism, anarchism, gave labor organizations bad name and accused them of anarchism
homestead act of 1862 – settlers could buy 160 acres for pocket change if they lived on land for five years and improved it. Lead to timber culture act (if planted 40 trees) and desert land act (if they irrigated land in 3 years); could gain up to 1280 acres for little cost. Opened up westward expansion, led to statehood of Midwest and beyond.
horizontal integration – combining of many businesses in the same field into a mega-corporation (trust). Led to price fixing
HUAC – house un-american activities committee – anticommunist committee, first attacked Hollywood with that huge trial against the Hollywood Ten, Hollywood blacklisted suspicious actors, directors and members to protect image; trials led by Alger Hiss
Immigration Act of 1965 – Johnson admin - strict limit on immigrants (170,000) but allowed people from europe, asia and Africa to enter on an equal basis
Immigration Restriction League – rising nativism provoked political responses, founded by five Harvard alumni; proposed screening immigrants through literacy tests and other standards
Kent State – four college students killed, nine injured in Kent State University of Ohio antiwar demonstration against Cambodian invasion (Nixon); led to repeal of Gulf of Tonkin Resolution; led to revealing of Pentagon Papers
Liberty bonds – bonds sold to public produced $23 billion to fund WWI
Lincoln Steffens – a reporter for McClure’s Magazine, exposed political machines, led to public outrage
Manhattan Project – project to create atomic bomb
Marshall Plan – plan to provide economic support to noncommunist European countries; strengthen export of American goods
National Origins Act (1924) – banned immigration from east Asia; immigration basically favored northwestern Europeans; based immigration rates on 1890 census instead of 1910 census
New Freedom – Wilson – proper response to monopoly was to destroy it
New Nationalism – Roosevelt – using govt to regulate and control economy
NIRA – NRA – National Recovery Administration – set floors on wages, section 7(a) said unions were allowed; stopped by supreme court, shook grounds of all New Deal programs
Omaha Platform – Populist goals – abolition of national banks, no absentee ownership of land, direct election of senators; subtreaties – network of govt owned warehouses where farmers could deposit crops. Using crops as collateral, growers could borrow money from govt at low apr and wait for price to rise before selling; govt ownership/regulation of railroads, telephone, telegraph; graduated income tax; inflation; make silver money again 
Pentagon Papers – leaked to press by former Defense official Daniel Ellsberg; evidence that govt had been dishonest in reporting military progress in Vietnam and explaining its motives for American involvement; led to widespread (two thirds) disapproval of war by citizens
plessy vs. Ferguson – Louisiana law prohibited blacks and from riding on white railroad cars – ‘separate but equal’
poll tax – devised by southern whites, state taxes on voting, property qualification, literacy or understanding tests; decreased black vote by 62%, white by 26%
Pullman Strike – Pullman palace car company, town created by company owner George M. Pullman, rented houses to employees; cut wages by 25%, didn’t lower rent, strike began, turned into strike of thousands of railroad workers in 27 states and territories, strike broken when president used troops
Railroad Strike of 1877 – began when eastern railroads announced 10% wage cut; strikers destroyed equipment, rioted in pittsburg and other cities, 100 people died; first major national labor conflict
Reaganomics – supply side economics – operated from the assumption that most problems with economy due to excessive taxation – so he reduced taxes by huge amounts (30%)
Roe vs. Wade – made abortion in first trimester legal; established right to medical privacy
Roosevelt Corollary – US had right to oppose European intervention in western hemisphere but also to intervene itself in the domestic affairs of its neighbors if those neighbors proved unable to maintain order and national sovereignty on their own
Rosa Parks – black woman, whose valiant effort started the Civil Rights Movement
Rosie the Riveter – women industrial workers; image that symbolized the new importance of the female industrial workers during WWII
SDS – Students for a Democratic Society; leading organization of student radicalism in 1960s; anti Vietnam war; many demonstrations; opposed by middle aged society
Sherman Antitrust Act – first federal opposition of trusts, largely symbolic, most suits against unions, not corporations
SNCC – Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee – began with sit-ins at lunch counters; worked to keep spirit of resistance alive; stemmed from MLK Jr
Social Darwinism – survival of the fittest, adopted mostly by rich tycoons; claimed they were most fit for wealth, they earned it; believed society benefited from survival of strong and talented; appealed to corporate leaders, confirmed virtues; partly led to trusts/monopolies, promoted business growth during industrial revolution
Stonewall Riot – marked beginning of gay liberation movement; riot began at Stonewall Inn, a gay club, and continued throughout Greenwich Village, against police when police rushed into club and began arresting people simply for being present in the night club
The Organization Man – book by Whyte, stressed ability to get along and work as a team, as a small part of a large bureaucratic environment
Treaty of Paris – end of Spanish-American War; US given control of Cuba, Puerto rico, guam, Philippines
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire – 146 workers died in fire, let to inspection of condition of industrial companies and later to reform of labor rights. Pioneering labor laws and effective methods of enforcement
UFW – united farm workers union – led by Cesar Chavez; primarily Mexican union
vertical integration – taking over of all businesses a company relies on for production; Carnegie (US Steel) controlled steel mills, mines, railroads and other enterprises needed for production of steel; led to price fixing
War Industries Board – coordinated govt purchases of military supplies.  Wilson placed it under control of Wall Street financer Bernard Baruch – huge, huge power
WEB Dubois – attacked Washington’s ideas; accept nothing less than full assimilation into society and full civil rights
William Levitt – Levittown creator
WPA – Works Progress Administration – established system of work relief for unemployed; routinely discriminated against minorities – cheap labor jobs; huge amounts of public works projects created; led by Harry Hopkins; pumped needed money into economy
Yellow press – William Randolph Hurst and Joseph Pulitzer and their sensationalist style of reporting and writing to reach mass market; propaganda during fight for Cuba, fed anger against Spain; exaggerated the sinking of Maine; war in Cuba a war of propaganda

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