Pages

Saturday, November 6, 2010

Basic concepts of Social Psychology

  • Social psychology – the science of how we think, feel, and act
  • Attribution theory – the causal explanations that people make about someone’s behavior
    • Situational – other people, luck, money, pressure
    • The person’s disposition – personality, wishes, ability, effort
  • Fundamental attribution error – the tendency to overestimate the influence of personal disposition and underestimate the influence of the situation on someone’s behavior
    • Committed more often by men
  • Attitudes – beliefs and feelings that affect how we respond to people and objects
  • The foot in the door technique – the tendency to agree to small requests and then to larger requests
    • Donations, sales
  • Cognitive dissonance theory – state of tension that occurs whenever you simultaneously hold two cognitions that are psychologically inconsistent and you experience an uncomfortable state that forces us to reduce one cognition in some way
    • Examples – initiation into fraternity has negative affect and conflicts with previous thoughts of happiness, leads to liking the fraternity so that the initiation was ‘worth it’
  • Normative social influence – conforming to social norms to avoid punishment or gain reward
  • Informational social influence – willingness in conforming to or accepting a group’s opinion about reality
  • Conformity – the adjustments we make in our behavior or cognition to the norms of a group
  • Obedience – changing one’s behavior as a result of some form of command; psychological mechanism linking individual action to political endeavors
    • Factors maximizing obedience
      • Authority figure
      • Depersonalization of victim
      • Escalation of behavior (lowball technique)
  • Social facilitation – performance improves in the presence of others but only under conditions where task is simple or well-learned
  • Social loafing – the tendency to reduce effort in group oriented tasks – less accountability
  • Deindividuation – reduction of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations, leading to arousal and anonymity; people engage in behavior they normally would not engage in
  • Group polarization – the enhancement of a group’s prevailing attitudes; group creates agreement on issues
  • Groupthink – desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides realistic evaluations of issues/alternatives and leads to a certain mode of thinking
    • Preventing groupthink – assigning role of devil’s advocate (challenge group mentally), having subgroup meetings, having a ‘last chance’ meeting, having outside experts
  • Aggression –
  • Frustration/aggression principle – frustration→anger→aggression; increases with temp and low SES
  • Passionate love – intense absorption in another that includes 1.) physical arousal and cognitive appraisal and 2.) where arousal from any source can increase emotion
    • Honeymoon stage
  • Companionate love – deep, affectionate attachment that we feel for others
  • Prejudice – refers to unjustifiable attitudes toward a group, usually involve beliefs (stereotypes), emotions, and predispositions to discriminate
  • Stereotypes – generalized beliefs about a group of people
  • Stereotyping – when one assigns the same characteristics to any person in a group, regardless of variation of the members of that group
  • Racism – any attitude, action, or institutional structure which subordinates a person or group because of race
    • Symbolic racism – form of resistance to change in the racial status quo based on moral feelings that ethnic minorities violate traditional American values
  • Contact hypothesis – actually increases aggression – forcing contact, institutionally or other ways, between two ethnic groups will lead to acceptance
  • Jigsaw classroom technique –
    • Equal status contact
    • Common goals
    • Intimate interactions
    • Increases participation
    • Increases empathy
  • Altruism – unselfish regard for others
  • Bystander effect – bystander less likely to offer assistance in the presence of other bystanders
  • Social exchange theory – process is always going on when making social decisions; maximizing benefits and minimizing costs in terms of our social behavior
  • Zimbardo’s prisoner study
    • Subjects took on roles so effortlessly and violently they had to stop experiment
  • Asch’s conformity experiments ­– shocking subjects with electricity
  • Maintaining a romantic relationship – acknowledge that passionate love will end, get what you put into a relationship (give and receive, share decision making), self-disclosure

36 comments:

  1. Wow, Excellent post. This article is really very interesting and effective. I think its must be helpful for us. Thanks for sharing your informative.
    mentalist

    ReplyDelete
  2. Two of the best Astroglide products perform as both personal lubricants and
    vaginal moisturizers.Both the Astroglide Personal Lubricant and the
    Astroglide Personal Lubricant Gel are water-based

    for easy cleanup, condom compatible,
    and bedroom tested.It’s easy to see why so many people prefer to include these
    sexual enhancers for their erotic moments.

    ReplyDelete
  3. phen375 Phen375 diet pill review. Find out what it is and how it can benefit you in your weight loss problems.

    ReplyDelete
  4. Utilization of refined and mesmeric is all that is expected to deliver such a grand blog. liedetectortest.uk/

    ReplyDelete
  5. Many schools offer both Bachelor of Science (B.S.) and Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) programs in psychology; B.S. programs often include more coursework and labs related to math and science, such as neurobiological processes and the mechanics of the brain. Top Five Search Engines For Accomplishing Composition Research

    ReplyDelete
  6. I read THE AUTHORITARIAN PERSONALITY when it first came out. I did so at the recommendation of a friend. I was long since out of school by then. The circular reasoning was appalling. I wondered, do people really take this seriously? group polarization recovery

    ReplyDelete
  7. male enhancement drugssatified with thier partners Smaller penis, Lack of stamina, aging often causes a steady decline in vitality & virility, which has a direct & negative impact on erections, sexual stamina & staying power. Some of the symptoms that may prevent you from satisfying the woman in your life may include:

    ReplyDelete
  8. Thanks for taking the time to discuss this, I feel strongly about it and love learning more on this topic. If possible, as you gain expertise, would you mind updating your blog with extra information? It is extremely helpful for me. Sigmund Freud

    ReplyDelete
  9. Thanks for sharing, this is a fantastic article post.Much thanks again. Cool. best quotes

    ReplyDelete
  10. Wonderfully astonished to see this meshwork of stunning words.
    Psytechnologies

    ReplyDelete
  11. hepsibahis Yüksek bahis oranları sunan en güncel canlı bahis şirketi olan hepsibahis firmasına buradan direk giriş yapın. Youwin adı ile tanınan ve Türkiye deki ismi hepsi bahis olarak kullanılan iddaa firması ile ilgili detaylı bilgileri öğrenin.

    ReplyDelete
  12. Best Monday Quotes, Greetings, Wishes, Text Messages One year lies in spring, and one day lies in Lee. The weekly plan is on Monday Morning. monday quotes
    . Blessing to the morning of toddlers, blessing of a solid and stable morning, blessing of the morning when Jack is old and strong, in the morning breeze, the healthy smile of people is the most beautiful picture in the world

    ReplyDelete
  13. bahis siteleri Avrupa da yasal olarak faaliyet gösteren bir çok güvenilir bahis sitesi için güncel giriş adresleri Bahis5XL sitemizde. Bahis5XL.com ile bir çok yabancı bahis şirketi hakkında tanıtım yazılarını inceleyerek, size uygun en iyi iddaa sitesini seçebilirsiniz. Canlı bahis siteleri için en çok bedava deneme bonusu veren Kıbrıs ve Malta lisanslı Türkçe bahis sitelerini Bahis5XL ile inceleyin. Türkiye nin en güncel 2020 bahis siteleri listesi burada.

    ReplyDelete
  14. 1xbet yeni adresi 1xbet Türkiye, online bahis şirketi hakkında giriş ve inceleme bilgileri. Onebahis firması için 2020 güncel yeni giriş adresi, ödemeler ve üyelik işlemleri için detaylı bilgiler, 1xbahis sayfamızda yer almakta.

    ReplyDelete
  15. Great work man you have post a great post it will help people very much keep it do more for people like that https://anjun1.net/.

    ReplyDelete
  16. meal kits Making cooking a little easier. It's hard, it takes time and who's got the time after a long day of work, looking after kids and being on your feet all day ? I bet you don't and neither do I.. making cheap and tasty modern day meal kits the new normal among all the changes going on in our world today.

    ReplyDelete
  17. less than one dollar web hosting Domain hosting can be hit and miss when it comes to finding it cheap. Don’t get me wrong there are cheap web hosting options, but how about “super cheap and affordable” web hosting. Less than a dollar is “truly” affordable web hosting and this is a chance to get access to web hosting that is consistent and reliable when it comes to affordable web hosting.

    ReplyDelete
  18. https://directoryofangels.com Playing sports and having sex is very much likened. The only thing I have likened is that, over time, they will both last longer. You know the fatigue from that rawness in the early days. You get tired immediately because you haven’t played sports for a long time. Your breath runs out in a very short time. After a while, you start to get used to it. The same thing exists in sex. You cannot share very long-term relationships with your partner. Over time, you train yourself and your body on this subject. Apart from that, it has no direct relationship with sports. We notice this change when I do not meet men for one night in my bed. In particular, I see more clearly with men I have sex at least once a week. They also know that they have seen a rapid recovery. I’m not talking about bodily improvement alone. In addition, of course, his skills in sex are also developing. It’s really important to know how to use this 15 to 20-centimeter piece of meat. Men They see this in my call girl rate in Goa services. They also start learning. They discover how much they can change on a woman.

    ReplyDelete
  19. great weight loss pills Authentic Option LLC offers collection of natural herbal products for skincare, hair care, and weight loss. We specialize in thermal weight loss, electrostimulation for muscle toning, cellulite removal, under-eye bags treatment and skincare products. We have an amazing range of beard growing products.

    ReplyDelete
  20. I admire this article for the well-researched content and excellent wording. we provide Tibetan singing bowl therapy in Singapore at affordable prices. for more info visit our website.

    ReplyDelete
  21. I’m satisfied with the information that you provide for me and thanks for this because sometimes people face this problem. we provide Lose weight with hypnotherapy in Singapore at affordable prices. for more info visit our website.

    ReplyDelete
  22. Statistics of drug and alcohol Addiction stands as the top public health problem in America outstanding all other major diseases including stroke, heart diseases and even cancer. The population of addicts is far larger than the patients suffering from the three mentioned diseases in America with sufferers ranging in millions.

    ReplyDelete
  23. Crunchyroll Crunchyroll is a dedicated anime streaming service that uploads over 30,000 episodes of top-rated anime episodes to subscribe members to it. Crunchyroll offers a comprehensive selection of high-quality dubbed anime series available for viewing no matter what time of day or night. All users can enjoy streaming live anime trailers, latest episodes, and popular anime show in the Crunchyroll catalog.

    ReplyDelete