Saturday, November 6, 2010

Behavior Psychology Concepts

Associative learning – learning that certain events occur together
classical conditioning – type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli
acquisition – the initial stage in classical conditioning; phase associating a neutral stimulus with an UCS (unconditioned stimulus) so that the neutral stimulus elicits a CR (conditioned response); in operant conditioning, strengthening of a reinforced response
extinction – diminishing response to CS (conditioned stimulus)
spontaneous recovery – reappearance of a CR after a rest pause; suggests extinction is suppression not elimination
generalization – tendency to respond similarly to similar stimuli
discrimination – learned ability to distinguish between similar stimuli
observational learning – learning by observing others
prosocial behavior – positive, constructive, helpful behavior; opposite of antisocial
modeling – process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
operant conditioning – association between behavior and consequences
law of effect – rewarded behavior is likely to recur
reinforcer – positively or negatively reinforces behavior
shaping – reinforcers gradually guide an organism’s actions toward a desired behavior
positive reinforcement – a tangible reward, praise, attention, yelling at them – increases the behavior
negative reinforcement – decreases behavior, takes something away
primary reinforcer – innately satisfying; no learning required
secondary reinforcer – (conditioned) learned
continuous reinforcement – desired response is reinforced every time it occurs
partial reinforcement – (intermittent) responses sometimes reinforced, sometimes not
latent learning – learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
overjustification effect – the effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do. The person may now see the reward, rather than intrinsic interest, as the motivation for performing the task
intrinsic motivation – a desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and to be effective
extrinsic motivation – a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment

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